Personally, I would trace the origins of post-bop much further back, at least to Charles Mingus.
To my ears, the most accessible of his many great albums are: For more albums, see my supplemental Google doc. Some recommended and accessible albums are: For a while, it looked like third stream music might be the future of jazz. Instead, free jazz came along and crushed it.
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Though the earliest free jazz tracks go back to , the genre is usually considered to have been launched in the late s, by Cecil Taylor and Ornette Coleman. Creative jazz was always a difficult, obscure tradition with a limited audience. Below, I focus on fusion artists who primarily trace their lineage to jazz rather than rock or country, etc. They approach their instruments in more traditional way compared to free jazz, not pushing them to their expressive limits. Here are some relatively accessible ECM style jazz albums: But here are some highly diverse exceptions: One way to improve the average accessibility of the items in the search results list is to further restrict the advanced search to albums released from — Jazz fusion Creative jazz was always a difficult, obscure tradition with a limited audience.
The gold with blue enamel medal is round and is attached to two 2 round jump rings. The obverse of the medal has a relief band of laurel garlands running along the left and right edges of the medal. At the top, just below the bezel, is a relief depiction of a banded hat with a tall crown. At the bottom is a relief depiction of a pair of wings. Knights of Columbus athletic medal awarded to Eulace Peacock. Columbus Council No. The medal consists of a gold colored bar pin holding a red and gold ribbon attached to a medal.
The ribbon is crimped to the front of the bar at each corner. Attached to the bottom of the ribbon is a rectangular, bronze colored medal held in place with two 2 jump rings. The obverse of the medal has a relief rectangular frame with stepped and scrolled corners. Centered inside the frame is a relief depiction of a shield. The shield is divided into four 4 quadrants.
The top left quadrant of the shield depicts a castle and the top right, a lion in profile rearing on his hind paws. The bottom left quadrant has three 3 spearheads, clouds, and rain. The bottom right quadrant has five 5 anchors. At the bottom of the medal are two 2 laurel branches below a round, blue gemstone. Attached to the bottom of the ribbon is an octagonal, silver colored medal held in place with two 2 jump rings. At the bottom of the medal are two 2 laurel branches below a round, pink gemstone.
Brussels International Exposition medal awarded to Eulace Peacock. The medal is rectangular in shape with a slightly rounded top edge. A relief, winged Nike is centrally depicted, standing behind a rectangular block. Her arms are extended outwards and she is holding bouquets of flowers with streaming ribbons in both of her hands. Swaths of fabric are draped over her arms. The back of the medal is blank. The medal consists of a gold colored pin holding an orange ribbon attached to a silver medal. The pin is rectangular shaped with a safety closure on the back.
Below the pin is an orange ribbon. It is crimped to the bar at each side.
Attached to the bottom of the ribbon is a clover shaped, silver colored medal held in place with two 2 jump rings. In the center of the obverse of the medal is a relief depiction of a Greek goddess standing in three quarters profile with her proper right knee resting on a round shield decorated with a eight 8 ray sun motif. Inscribed in the center of the medal is engraved text that reads [ YD. The medal is round, silver colored, and has a bezel attached to a jump ring.
The medal is round, bronze colored, and has a bezel attached to a jump ring. The obverse of the medal has a relief depiction of the Olympic Stadium in Amsterdam. Several rows of stadium seating are visible along the bottom edge. In the background. Behind the stadium is Marathon Tower; a tall, thin tower with a large cauldron at the top and a lit Olympic flame. Smoke billows from the flame. Gravity acts on an object in flight just as it does on the object on the ground—producing a downward pull or force.
When lift is greater than weight, the object rises; when weight is greater than lift, it sinks. Lift leaving aside considerations of buoyancy acts only on objects in motion and it is the shape and tilt of the object which influences the amount of the lift. Thrust is the force produced by flapping wings, a propeller, jet engine or rocket.
For a kite, thrust is provided by the pull of the string see diagram in figure 2. Thrust, the forward push or pull, acts only on an object in motion. Drag if the force produced by the resistance of the air against the moving object. It, too, acts only on an object in motion and can be represented in a diagram as a backward force or pull.
The most fundamental principle of true flight can be clearly stated in terms of the forces: A kite, bird or airplane is in level, steady flight when its lift equals its weight and its drag equals its thrust. Air is the medium through which birds and planes fly. In order to fly a plane is dependent upon surfaces with which to support itself in the air.
Stefan Weisman, press
Such surfaces are called airfoils. Airfoils are surfaces designed to produce efficient lifting force—wings, tails and propellers are examples. Sir George Cayley, by building many models, learned a key lesson which most students have learned at one time or another with folded paper airplanes—some bodies projected through air give a large amount of lift. A properly designed body projected through the air in a horizontal direction will produce a net lifting force perpendicular to the horizontal direction. This instrument has shown us the oral face of the earth.
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Up here, observing man from our portholes, we find ourselves judging him on a cosmic scale. We find ourselves rereading our own history. What we seek to establish or perhaps simply remind ourselves of is the connectedness between human imagination and human powered flight. All that was needed after Cayley were relatively small advances in the airfoil and engine design and the modern airplane was born. Our story could end here with the triumphal inauguration of the era of motorized flight at Kitty Hawk.
However, one final chapter in the Daedalus cycle must be accounted for. Only in the past 25 years has the human powered aircraft come into its own, relying on advances in a combination of essential technologies: aerodynamics, propulsive, and structural. A series of international competitions sponsored by a few organizations and individuals did much to stimulate human powered flight.
The first great competition took place in France between and , sponsored by the Peugeot company. Once airborn there was no way to add to the thrust. In German, Italian and Russian prizes were offered for the first human power flight around two posts set meters apart. None of the prize money was claimed, but new designs were shown capable of several hundred meters of propeller driven flight if launched by catapult.
The most renowned competitions and the ones which have spurred significant technological progress have been sponsored by a British manufacturer, Henry Kremer. In he offered a prize of 5, pounds to the first entrant to fly around a one-mile, figure eight course under human power alone. Kremer then offered the largest prize in aviation history, , pounds for a human-powered flight across the English Channel. Again the winner was Allen, pedalling the Gossamer Albatross across the 21 mile strait on June 12, Seeking to encourage smaller and faster craft, Kremer offered yet another prize, 20, pounds to the first contestant who would complete a 1, meter triangular course in less than 3 minutes—an average speed of nearly 20 miles per hour with some technically challenging turns.
This prize was won in May, by Frank Scarabino in the Monarch , a craft designed and built at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A beginner’s guide to modern art jazz
In each Kremer competition, the designers faced a common problem: how to reduce the power required by the aircraft to the amount available from a human being. A well-conditioned athlete can produce up to one kilowatt about 1. Since it creates most of the drag, its shape must be as efficient as possible. New materials such as graphite and graphite-epoxy have enabled builders to make large, lightweight fixed wings and by covering surfaces with mylar film drag can be minimized.
Following the successful capture of the Kremer prize in , the MIT design team began to prepare for their ultimate challenge—the reenactment of the Daedalus flight from Crete. Preparations were extraordinary. To build and test the 70 pounds aircraft took 15, hours and one million dollars. Five athletes—bicycling champions—were selected and put through rigorous training and endurance tests. The pilot of the craft would pedal a mechanism which operated through two gear boxes and turned an foot, superlight propeller to provide thrust for the craft.
The length of the flight and low speed required that the operator maintain a high level of pedalling power for nearly five hours—not unlike running two back-to-back marathons.
First feather fossil ever found belongs to a MYSTERY dinosaur
Even a new beverage was developed for the flight to replace the perspiration and minerals sweated off by the pilot. Finally, at A. Aided by a mild tailwind, the plane advanced at a graceful Just three hours and 54 minutes after takeoff, the craft approached the beach of Santorini. Suddenly an offshore gust caught the craft bringing it up into a stall and snapping off its tail.
The Daedalus plunged into the sea 30 feet from shore. Longest straight-line flight 74 miles. Longest absolute distance flight 74 miles. Duration aloft: 3 hours, 54 minutes.